This article will provide a description of the outdoor advertising, information on advertising media, their purpose, functions and features, as well as detailed descriptions and sample images.
Outdoor advertising is a text, graphics, or other visual information is advertising that is placed on the special permanent or temporary structures located in the open space, the external surfaces of buildings, street elements equipment above the roadway of streets and roads. It is a delivery channel of advertising information with a low selectivity acting on the various types of mass audience.
Outdoor advertising refers to the oldest form of advertising and currently remains one of the most common in the advertising of goods and services. In recent years, the advertising industry is actively developed, offering advertisers increasingly complex and technologically advanced solutions, such as innovative advertising platform integration in the urban space, new interactive formats of communication with the customer, improving the planning models and measure the effectiveness of outdoor advertising projects, and so on.
The structure of the outdoor advertising industry consists of the following basic forms of organization of the enterprises, which usually interacts advertiser …
- Owners, contractors – Owners of advertising constructions and carriers or holders of contracts for outdoor advertising.
- Agency dealers – Companies that have special rights on the implementation of specific advertising media or narrow concrete proposals contractors.
- Agency brokers – Companies that specialize in outdoor advertising purchases for advertisers and are bound by the owners of advertising carriers.
- Manufacturers of advertising – The company who specialize in the works for the production of outdoor advertising.
It should be noted that in the outdoor advertising segment is used more complex than in the advertising industry as a whole, the administrative regulation on the part of government agencies. Outdoor advertising is regulated not only by the federal law “On Advertising”, but also by the individual decisions of the regional and municipal authorities, as well as due to the various restrictions and bureaucratic procedures.
Features Of Outdoor Advertising As A Channel For The Delivery Of Advertising Information
Outdoor advertising stand somewhat apart relative to other advertising media. This is due, primarily, to the fact that the main purpose of the majority of media to be used as advertising media is not publication of advertising: newspapers advertising, television advertising and radio advertising are created and function as socially significant sources of public non-commercial information, for which advertising is element important, but not the main one. In turn, the means of outdoor advertising are intended solely for the delivery of commercial advertising information that cannot but affect the attitude towards them audience, according to many studies, most people think of outdoor advertising (especially outdoor) irritant, significantly worsening the urban landscape.
Such an attitude in no small measure contributes to the fact that outdoor advertising cannot “turn off” or ignore the other in this way that is contact with the inevitable. Given the similar reaction to the ubiquitous outdoor advertising, advertising concepts developers sometimes advise advertisers to resort to special, nonstandard creative strategies during campaigns.
The effectiveness of outdoor advertising is a result of many factors, so the planning and implementation of advertising campaigns require the advertiser knowledge of its individual features. Similarly, the selected outdoor advertising format guarantees the attention of the target audience to its content, and a considerable variety of advertising media can form an advertising placement program so as to ensure the greatest number of contacts with the advertising message, and therefore the greater memorability. At the same time, a wide variety of advertising media leads to “advertising noise”, especially in big cities: the user can “get lost” in the huge advertising and information flow and miss advertising.
Therefore, in order to be effective outdoor advertising, the advertiser is necessary not only to resort to the eye-catching creative solutions, but also to carefully choose the right means of advertising and placements. So, sometimes even local accommodation creates an impression of massive campaigns and is remembered for a long time consumers. Additionally, outdoor advertising can be targeted: the precise placement of it is not only able to reach the target audience, but also to direct its flows in the right direction.
There are five of the most important requirements for outdoor advertising …
- Often out of sight
- To attract attention
- Be concise
- It is readily perceived on the go
- Be understandable to a mass audience
Because of these requirements outdoor advertising, is used primarily as an aid in the framework of integrated advertising campaigns to support and advertising supplements placed in other media. Such a complex effect can significantly increase the performance efficiency of an advertising campaign. At the same time, the most effective advertising for its use of those goods and services that can be represented by a laconic images and brief text. Additionally, outdoor advertising is often used for fashion, as well as for the audience reminders of the virtues already known her goods and services and how to buy them.
Advantages and Disadvantages OF Outdoor Advertising
|The inevitability of advertising contact. Outdoor advertising can not “turn off” or ignore the other in this way, that is contact with the inevitable.||The lack of selectivity. Outdoor advertising is almost does not reach certain segments of the audience, that is, it cannot be aimed at customers of a particular gender, age, occupation, income level or education.|
|To read the advertisements do not need additional devices.||Transience, a short time of perception of advertising messages as compared to other advertising distribution channels, the low concentration of consumers of advertising.|
|Wide coverage of local markets combined with a high frequency of ad impressions. Outdoor advertising is used as an effective means of influencing the mass audience of the local markets, where selectivity does not play a significant role. It provides a broad coverage of the mobile population in the local markets in a relatively short period of time (an average of 30 days). In this case, the outdoor advertising provides a high level of frequency with mobile coverage of the population.||High coverage of the audience does not guarantee memorizing advertising. Outdoor advertising provides a sufficiently high level of coverage, and sometimes good memorization of advertising messages. But the high level of exposure does not mean a high level of memorization. Originality and entertainment advertising messages are important criteria in determining the ability of the audience for his memorization, but in practice, people often are not able to remember what they saw.|
|Variability in accordance with the needs of individual markets. Outdoor advertising can be used in the local markets, regionally and nationally. However, even within a single market, as a rule, it is possible to set accents exactly where it is needed, which leads to a partial selective audience.||Concise messages. Outdoor advertising is used to transfer simple and short messages as complex or long messages will not be received by the audience.|
|Most of the possible advertising space. Size – a key means of attracting attention. Outdoor advertising provides advertisers the largest size of the available media advertising information. The use of color printing advertising with bright lights, and sometimes in conjunction with the dynamic elements, allowing advertisers to attract the maximum attention of the audience.||Steadily negative attitude. Most people consider outdoor advertising (especially outdoor) irritant significantly detract from the appearance of individual buildings and the urban landscape as a whole.|
|Easy identification of the appearance of the advertised offer (goods or services) or brand. If the advertising message is relatively succinct and imaginative, and the overall design of a distinct, urban street can be an excellent means of raising awareness of the new brand at the highest level frequency of ad impressions. This form of advertising is especially well established it upon reading potential customers with new offers or trademarks.||Complex administrative regulations, restrictions and bureaucratic procedures for advertising. Outdoor advertising is regulated not only by federal law, but also by the individual decisions of the regional and municipal authorities, as well as due to the various restrictions.|
|The low cost of advertising exposure. At a cost of advertising exposure outdoor advertising refers to the least expensive channel of distribution of advertising.||The high cost of advertising. Despite the relatively low cost of advertising exposure, the use of outdoor advertising is often associated with relatively high costs of production and placement of advertising materials. To this it is also added the need for constant monitoring of the state of advertising media and structures. These costs can be prohibitive for many advertisers.|
Features Of Perception Of Outdoor Advertising
When placing the outdoor advertising are critical parameters such as means of advertising and placement. The greater the distance from which clearly and accurately perceived image and the lower the rate of movement of people in this place, the better the impact of advertising. The vast majority of consumers of outdoor advertising time eye contact necessary for reading text and viewing images, not more than a few seconds. Studies show that using a static image rendering advertising appeal should be concise and catchy, contain one illustration, and not more than seven words. Nuances of design of advertising appeal, such as fonts, colors, graphics and three-dimensional objects, visual, dynamic, and lighting effects, should be focused on a particular customer segment the offer advertised. Therefore, the development stage of the design project of outdoor advertising requires a certain knowledge of consumer psychology and characteristics of visual perception.
For outdoor advertising are critical parameters such as viewpoint and angle of view. Viewpoints to consider when choosing the location of advertising. The best is a placement with a maximum of viewpoints. The angle of the vehicle driver and a pedestrian are different, the angle of view of pedestrian walking in a crowd, and a single pedestrian will also be different due to the characteristics displacement and the angle of view of the driver and passenger will be different due to the difference of their location in the car.
Perception of outdoor advertising not only depends on viewpoint and angle of view, but also from its location in the surrounding area. Advertising medium is perceived not only in itself, but also with a portion adjacent territory and surrounding objects. Related to this is one of the famous paradoxes of outdoor advertising, which is that it must at the same time and combined with the surrounding environment, and stand out from it.
In the experiments to study the visual perception revealed the following …
- Attract human attention, as a rule, place a dense cluster elements to create the impression of mass;
- In the early stages of perception clearly distinguished coupling points forming regular geometric figures or fragments thereof;
- Focuses on close and thereby affecting the elements to each other;
- In the case of the predominance of amorphous placement of elements, attention is drawn first of all space allocated points, for example separated from the other by small gaps;
- Using points easily created dynamic and static composition, wherein the first of them lead to both eyes of the observer in the intended direction of movement.
Of course, these general principles work differently in specific circumstances. So, the perception of outdoor advertising has a different psychological specificity for drivers of cars and pedestrians, so advertising aimed at drivers who runs a little differently than for pedestrians. In all cases, the amount of information on advertising media should take into account the cognitive abilities of a person.
Fixed Assets Of The Outdoor Advertising
Outdoor advertising is a great variety, so the advertising message that the advertiser intends to convey to the target audience, can be represented in different ways. In outdoor advertising, there are a variety of advertising media and formats, and the amount of media and formats is constantly growing.
All means of outdoor advertising are divided into two main groups …
1) Stationary advertising media: For stationary advertising media are advertising media with a permanent placement. Stationary advertising media are divided into detached and placed on buildings and structures. Freestanding advertising media, as opposed to mounted on buildings, have an independent foundation or accommodating portion.
2) Temporary advertising media: By the time advertising media are advertising media which do not have permanent placement and placed within a certain period of time.
All means of outdoor advertising are divided into certain formats. Outdoor advertising format is determined by the size of the advertising surface, i.e. the height and length of advertising images. To date, the most widely used these advertising media formats (height × width, m)
- Billboard: Billboard 6 × 3.
- Super board: Billboard 3 × 12 × 12 4.
- Supersite: Billboard 10 × 5 × 12 5 × 15 5.
- City board: Billboard 3.7 × 2.7.
- City format: Advertising structure 1.2 × 1.8 internally illuminated.
- Pillar: Triangular pedestal 1.4 × 3 with internal illumination.
- Panel-mount bracket: Advertising structure 1.2 × 1.8 internally illuminated.
- Banner-hauling: Advertising banner 1 × 12.
- Poster: Poster 1.75 × 1.85.
These formats are considered standard, and now make up the vast majority of advertising media in the advertising market of outdoor advertising. Despite the fact that the search for new formats of advertising media is being constantly tested and traditional advertising formats occupy a leading position among the most popular. The operators of outdoor advertising networks and companies offering services on its placement continue to actively improve both network and advertising means inventing new ways to enhance their effectiveness.
Main Place Of Outdoor Advertising Location
Designated outdoor advertising locations are divided into the following main areas …
1) Municipal and private territory, infrastructure:
- Strips road drainage, roadside zone dividing strips;
- Open space;
- Sidewalks, pedestrian areas;
- Parks, gardens, recreational facilities;
- Outdoor furniture;
- Enclosures for permanent and temporary.
2) Real estate, including residential, public and other buildings and facilities …
- Walls of buildings and structures;
- Roofs of buildings and structures.
All advertising objects of the outdoor advertising, regardless of their type, size and location, are subject to mandatory registration with the regional and municipal authorities. At the same time in different regions of the rules of outdoor advertising, differ markedly. Rules are governed by special provisions on the procedure for the placement and operation of outdoor advertising. The basis for the placement of outdoor advertising is the so-called approvals, of which, as a rule, include permission for the right of distribution of outdoor advertising, the passport of advertising space, the approved project and the contract with the owner or other person has the right to place advertising.
Definition of places of outdoor advertising is based on the urban zoning, existing in a particular city. Traditionally, the area of a major city is divided into three zones, within which there are different requirements for placement of outdoor advertising …
1) Heritage area: It includes areas adjacent to the monuments of architecture and culture, monuments and places of worship; monuments of architecture and culture; nature reserves, monuments of nature and landscape art. Placement of outdoor advertising in the area of heritage, as a rule, is not carried out and only permitted on the temporary fencing reconstructed buildings.
2) Special zone of the city of destination: It includes the central line; areas in the central and important streets and avenues; square near the railway stations; the area around the government buildings. The urban area of special purpose high requirements for the appearance of outdoor advertising and set a ban on the placement of certain types of advertising violating the architectural and spatial environment of the city.
3) General purpose urban area: It includes the rest of the city: visits, entrances to the city, a typical residential development, landscaped areas, and so on.
The cost of outdoor advertising depends on the zone in which it is located. Accordingly, the principle of advertising media are divided into categories (first, second, third and so on).
Outdoor advertising can be one of the following models of outdoor advertising locations that maximize coverage of the target audience …
1) Gossamer: A model in which all advertising media are located in close proximity to the advertised object (e.g. commercial enterprises, service, office advertiser), penetrating the surrounding urban infrastructure. Generally, the closer is the advertised object, the “heap” and “thick” carriers are placed. Sometimes outdoor advertising media are used as pointers to the advertised object.
2) Backbone: A model in which all advertising carriers are arranged along the major (most lively) city highway. Location can be of two types: one-way (all carriers are rotated in one direction of motion) and bilateral (carriers turned in the direction of any of the parties to the motion).
3) Breeding: A model in which advertising media are located around the city, “heaps” of several pieces (i.e. sockets). Typically, the carriers are placed in places of the greatest congestion of pedestrian and traffic flows: at junctions and intersections of roads, near the area, markets and so on.
4) Expert: Model in which advertising carriers in different locations according to the subjective preferences advertiser or service agency it (e.g., selected from the best of unoccupied seats). It characterized as the most chaotic and the least effective of all the above, but the preparations for the advertising campaign for this model requires much less time.
Features of the application of these models depends on the tasks advertiser, its financial capacity, and the specifics of the advertised goods or services.
Evaluation Of The Effectiveness Of Outdoor Advertising
In general, the effectiveness of outdoor advertising can be no doubt, however, a qualitative assessment of its effectiveness is often very difficult, as the use of standard methods of media planning is impossible. This is due to the following reasons …
1) For outdoor advertising is characterized by great diversity: Advertising media are very different from one another format, location, location, materials used in the manufacture of advertising, image transfer technology and many other features. Therefore, to compare the effect produced by contact with such different advertising appeals problematic.
2) The effectiveness of outdoor advertising: Perception significantly affected by weather conditions, time of day, season, location and many other factors.
3) Outdoor advertising: In fact the only advertising channel in which there is a movement of the advertising message and its recipient with respect to each other. This situation raises many questions regarding the measurement of advertising exposure parameters.
4) Outdoor advertising by the absence of selectivity and a large rotation of auditors: Despite the difficulties, there are certain techniques that allow an advertiser on the probability level to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of a particular deployment model. The basis for these calculations is the determination of the total size of the potential target audience of advertising, which is made through the evaluation of the volume of the total audience of a particular advertising media location.
The main indicator of the size of the audience is the number of potential advertising contacts (number of people with a practical opportunity to see this in the outdoor advertising unit of time – day, week or month). In the calculation using the data, based on the study of traffic routes, frequency of occurrence of individuals at certain nodal points, the number of vehicles drivers and pedestrians in a unit of time, the probability of visual contact, distance visibility, viewing obstructions, and so on. Additional measurements for different days of the week and month allow output coefficients, which are calculated on the basis of the total audience of outdoor advertising.